martedì 1 febbraio 2011

Archeoagronomia "A hoe is a 'watering'

Archeoagronomia "A hoe is a 'watering'

Research by Bruno Antonio *

Looking through the numbers of Agriculture Salentina of 1902 I read the article in the Cav. Prof. Ferdinand Valais which is entitled "A hoe is watering" which takes the popular proverb as a starting point for dealing with frequent references to the work of the usefulness of plants in our southern regions during the summer season.

Just the Salento, as the prof. Valais, is located at the extreme of "Pulia siticulosa" which in 1902 was presented to the characteristics of dry soil and dry climate for the April to September as there is no rainfall.

In 1902 the farmer Salento following the directions of this proverb frequently intervened with processes that could allow the cultivation without water (we would say in aridocoltura) of tomatoes, melons and pumpkins all over the land consisting of a few inches of tillable soil resting directly on limestone.

Prof. Wallis points out in his paper that the agronomists of the time had identified the cause of the effect of cultivating the soil frequently obtain plants that produce no supply of irrigation and rain interruption of the continuity of the capillary below the top layer to prevent the dispersion under water vapor existing in the soil.

Prof. Wallis cites the scholar Déhérain who demonstrated experimentally that the time is not on the ground before he wrote the work often prevents excessive drying of the arable layer.

The experiment carried out by Déhérain is to fill two jars of clay by exposing them to fresh air. In one of these should run frequent weeding, and the other should be left as it was not acting with any working.

The Déhérain measured several times the moisture from the land of the two vessels and found no difference in amount between the vessel had left the other working without frequent interventions weeding.

Then conducted a second test between two pots in a land covered with vegetation and the other without any vegetation or bare ground.

The Déhérain has taken the measurement of the amount of moisture in the ground on these two vessels noting that in the jar covered with vegetation, there was a lot of humidity below 50% compared to the pot with the ground naked.

In other words, the ground covered with grass had twice lost to evaporation of moisture in the bare surface.

This experiment shows that the irrigation is not a valid hoeing summer because they prevent the loss of moisture by interrupting the capillary continuity between the layers of the soil;

but because they destroy the weeds or weeds or weeds with their roots as drawing water from the ground up in the lead I, as were their pumps and water passing through this or the stalks of weeds and their ramifications would be dispersed by evapotraspirante large area consisting of the leaves.

Prof. Ferdinand Wallis concludes his discussion by applying the assertion of the cultivation of the vine that is hit by drought early when grown in the alleyways grasses, legumes and grains, which remain on the ground in some cases towards the end of the spring, then Prof. Valais advises against the practice of intercropping with the screw that was then widespread in Salento.

Prof. Wallis adds that in our climate is always essential for the reasons set out above to proceed to the reduction of the foliage of woody plants thereby reducing the surface evapotraspirante especially when they insist on tree crops in dry soil.

Prof. Valais in 1902 gave very valid information that can be applied also in our time when we should proceed to the cultivation without the aid of irrigation.

* Agronomist (expert in urban and regional diagnostic entitled International University Master's Degree in Diagnostic IMD Urban and Regional Urban and Territorial Diagnostics).

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