martedì 23 novembre 2010

2 thousand years of Olives from Salento Lecce

2 thousand years of Olives from Salento Lecce

Antonio Bruno *


Why the 538 varieties of olive trees in Italy only two have established themselves in Salento Lecce? There are other varieties of olive tree? Where can I go see? In this note the comments of an Agronomist.


It 'nice to live in a land that has been trampled by the sandals of the Greeks two thousand years ago. Yeah! The Greeks looked at and then wrote, and their writings have survived to my eyes that could see the line that twists to form in my mind that the symbols are transformed into meanings and images of two thousand years old.

You and I read that I can observe the reality of two thousand years ago recorded by our ancestors. But think about it? Is not that wonderful? A greek name that Strabo was born in Amasea to the 58 BC and was an ancient geographer, came in Salento Lecce! I know because I read his description of the area where I live. It 's a privilege to access the perception of a man two thousand years ago, he writes, describing the Salento Lecce as a territory in which the inhabitants were very laborious to the point of being able to cultivate wheat and other plants despite the harshness of the terrain feature by the presence of stones. Interesting reference to Strabo's lack of water in our region which, however, admired the beautiful pastures and the presence of trees.

It's been 2,000 years and, despite the devastating work done by men, the landscape still retains its beauty that has its roots in the ancient presence of the olive tree, it would be better to write "forest for the trees of Salento Lecce.

Luciana Baldoni, referring to the theme "varietal characterization" of the project Olviva and researcher at the Institute of Plant Genetics - CNR, Perugia section states that individuals in our country today are 538 varieties of olive trees that represent about 42% of the world heritage . But always by the same researcher learn that Italian olive growing is based on 90% of cases only 50 varieties, and I'll add that one of Salento in Lecce is based on only two varieties: Lecce and the Ogliarola Cellina of Nardo.

The Ogliarola Lecce grows and produces in a satisfactory manner even though its productivity is variable depending on the years to become in some poor. The Cellina Nardo, also known as Saracens, has an oil content of less than all'Ogliarola Lecce but has a constant production over the years so as to make it very present in our environment.

The olive cultivars was affirmed during the serious crisis at the end of 1800 early crossed the 900 olive del Salento Lecce market problems, but not for adversity, and especially between those from the parasitic Brusca, caused by a fungus belonging to the Ascomycota (Stictis panizzei).

The Cellina Nardi said in Salento Lecce because during quell'epidemia turned out to be more resistant to Brusca.

But after two thousand years of olive growing as never have emerged only these two varieties? Possible that over the years no one has attempted to introduce new ones?

John Presta wrote in 1792 that it introduced the olive infrantoio race, and the morajolo coregiuolo from Tuscany which produced olives since the third year. Always Be grafts reported that he played with Licinio (Ahr) and Sergio (Resciola) Venafro.

Towards the end of the 800 Baron Adolf Colossus Capeselle farm in the countryside of Salento Lecce Ugento realized with the cultivars of olive groves in Tuscany, Calabria and Bari which refers to the prof. Giacinto women in a publication of 1969 stating that those plants were still living in that fund but that it had stunted, less productive, and little resistance to parasites.

Also at the end of the 800 there were attempts to introduce new varieties of olive trees in the area by Mr. Modoni Palmariggi in the countryside of Salento Lecce and Mr. Healy in agro Ruffano both attempts failed.

But as always there is the exception, Lecce and Salento that can be defined as a collection of olive varieties created at the farm of the Istituto Tecnico Agrario John Presta Lecce on the way to St. Peter's knife in and near the Archaeological Park ancient Rudiae.

In 1930 the then Dean Prof. Xavier Jovino he collected 85 cultivars from all over Italy. These olive trees are still admirable on the avenue that links with the Agricultural Technical Institute Hotelier who has an office in the old tobacco factory of the Institute.

The status of plants is that it does not exclude the possibility of spread in the Salento Lecce new olive cultivars.

The olive trees are now 80 years and for this reason would be interesting to observe the conditions and verifying the production, I write it hoping that the Botanical Garden of the Faculty of Biology, University of Salento deal with it as soon as I send this note Hail to Professor Rita, and to Prof. Dr. Piero Users Agr. Fabio Ippolito dealing full time with great success of the Botanical Garden.

One last note on Cellina Nardò that besides being used to get the oil after they have been sweetened salted in special clay containers called Capasa.

All of us in Salento Lecce eat these olives accompanied with bread or a bread that we all know is called "Pucci" made by mixing the yeast to the dough a little olive Cellini and then cook in the oven getting oiled puccia that today are available in all bakeries del Salento Lecce but once it was prepared at the December 7 we all know to be the eve of the Feast of the Immaculate Conception.

Bread, wine and olive oil are the basis of the Mediterranean diet that UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee meeting in Nairobi November 16, 2010 called intangible heritage by UNESCO.

All we know is scientifically proven that the true strength of the Mediterranean diet is beneficial in that it brings about in front of the cardiovascular and cancer. And 'that is shared at all levels that the Mediterranean model is the only proved successful against most of the risk factors that predispose to the onset of major chronic diseases of our century. World consumption of olive oil has an annual average growth of 9.2%. The consumption of olive oil rose about the same magnitude in the more economically developed countries where the increase in the last 10 years has been remarkable. The U.S. and Canada has doubled consumption in Japan has been a growth of seven times, in Britain and France consumption

fivefold and Germany has more than tripled.

So what are we waiting for? Over 85 thousand hectares of olive trees in the forest of Salento, Lecce, there are about 9 million olive trees, each producing on average about 40 pounds of oil. In our area we produce 360 million pounds of olive oil or 3 million and 600 thousand tons. This oil olive oil from Salento Lecce is the key ingredient of the Mediterranean diet, functional food that heals the major chronic diseases of our century, it now falls to us to make it known to all that doing good for human beings contribute to the richness of our territory!


Alberto Grimelli: Among more than five hundred varieties of olives from which to choose?

Anthony Bruno: A handful of custodians of creation

Albert F. Leandro: Descrittione the whole of Italy and its islands relevant Venetia, 1577

Giacinto Women: Aspects and problems of restructuring in the olive-growing province of Lecce

Alessandra Miccoli: The cultivation of past and present

Experimental Institute for Olive - Rende (CS): STATISTICAL SULL'OLIVICULTURA and olive oil EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL PUGLIA

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